How do you decide whether the information you found is a credible and reliable source? Use the CRAAP test to evaluate your sources. The CRAAP test is a list of questions to help you evaluate the information you find. You can use the test to evaluate all types of information sources such as books, journal and magazine articles, websites, or social media.
The MORE of these elements your source has, the less likely it is to be CRAP!
The timeliness of the information.
- When was the information published or posted?
- Has the information been revised or updated?
- Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
- If your source is a website, do all of the links work?
The importance of the information for your needs.
- Does the information related to your topic or answer your question?
- Who is the intended audience?
- Is the information at an appropriate level (e.g. not too basic or too advanced for your needs)?
- Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
- Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?
The source of the information.
- Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
- What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?
- Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
- Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
- Does the URL of the website reveal anything about the author or source? (examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net)
The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content.
- Where does the information come from?
- Is the information supported by evidence?
- Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
- Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
- Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
- Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?
The reason the information exists.
- What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade?
- Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
- Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?
- Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
- Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?